Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

Anya Allein
21.10.2015

Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

The most probable version that microorganisms were the first living organisms on Earth is distributed and accepted. That is, to their ancient species, called proto-microorganisms, we owe the appearance of life on our planet! And then development, evolution and, ultimately, people. And what exactly are these strange creatures - groups of microorganisms?

Stalemate microorganisms

Microorganisms: they are impossible to see, but they are material

In science (microbiology is engaged in the study of microorganisms) they are also called Max, as well as microbes (just don’t just have to think that only pests are among them) - this is a group of living organisms that definitely exist but cannot be seen with the naked eye because of Well, very tiny sizes - less than 0.1 millimeter. Do you remember biology lessons and interesting observations through a microscope? That's when we had a chance to consider them.

Types of microorganisms

By the way, another school truth - from any rule there are exceptions.So, most of these creatures are composed of only one cell, but there are also multicellular ones.

Beneficial microorganisms compete with harmful

These tiny and unassuming creatures live everywhere - water, air, soil and hot springs, and the ocean floor, and the insides of the earth's crust, and our organisms, and the organisms of our pets.

Well, for example, it is thanks to these crumbs that natural purification of water takes place in natural conditions. In general, they are involved in the circulation of iron, sulfur, phosphorus, and more. But it's not for nothing that the word “germs” in your head pops up nasty little pest-takers from advertising.

Microorganisms can be not only good, but also evil. One of the most famous microbiologists, academician V. Omelyansky, said simply and clearly about them: "The invisible, they constantly accompany a person, invading his life as friends, then as enemies."

Microbial Groups

As friends they are even used in food production. But harmful microorganisms can become not only the cause of spoilage of the same food, for example, but also cause dangerous diseases. This is exactly what we are clearly explained in advertisements.That's why we should know about them!

The history of the development of microorganisms

Naturally, the existence of these invisible mankind is not always known. We could see them only at the end of the 17th century, when the Dutch scientist A. Leeuwenhoek invented lenses. Thanks to their ability to increase everything by a factor of 200, the startled Dutchman saw the microcosm. He described and made drawings of microbes. So the foundations of microbiology were laid.

And already in the XIX century, Louis Pasteur made a significant contribution to this science. He proved that there are different groups of microorganisms that differ in their form, structure, and methods of vital activity. Mr. Pasteur in the course of research came to important conclusions. For example, the fact that yeast contributes to alcoholic fermentation, as well as discovered harmful microbes that cause terrible infectious diseases of animals and people. Thus, he invented a vaccine against anthrax and rabies.

Just a few years later, R. Koch discovered extremely dangerous pathogens - those that excite cholera and tuberculosis.

Based on all these studies, I. Mechnikov developed the theory of immunity.

Beneficial microorganisms

The impact of microorganisms: the strong "minnows"?

But, of course, the impact of microorganisms on the universe as a whole is difficult to overestimate. After all, every element, even the smallest, plays its important role in any, albeit a very large mechanism. The power of our crumbs in large quantities and, accordingly, unimaginably huge prevalence. Therefore, together they have a solid metabolic potential. The scope of their functionality: dynamic equilibrium in the biosphere of our planet and the circulation of substances. Microorganisms are a link in the metabolism in ecosystems.

On this basis, these types of microorganisms are distinguished:

• recipients - destroy the remains of living beings and turn them into the most simple organic and inorganic compounds;
• producers (in the minority) - produce organic substances from inorganic.

Harmful microorganisms

Types of microorganisms

All microbes are divided into several groups, within which there are also subspecies.

• Bacteria are mostly single-celled microorganisms whose size ranges from a few tenths of a micrometer to several micrometers. Many varieties of bacteria are causing terrible diseases.Among bacteria, there are also several types:
- mycoplasma
- rickettsia,
- protozoi.
• Viruses are microorganisms that do not have a cellular structure, so they constitute a special group. Measure - nanometers. And you can see them only through an electron microscope.
• Fungi - plant microorganisms that develop on substrates that have nutrients. Therefore, they can cause diseases of plants, animals, insects and people.
• Yeast - single-celled plants that are involved in the processes of fermentation, decomposition and fermentation.


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  • Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person

    Types of microorganisms: what they can do with a person