Tips from the school sommelier in St. Petersburg: How wine is prepared
Wine is an alcoholic beverage revered all over the world. Scientists are still arguing about where wine was invented. But everyone agrees that 10 thousand years ago a special type of grape was cultivated, which was used to make a drink. In this article we will describe the technology of wine production.
Berry picking and processing
As you know, this wine is made from grapes. The quality of the product depends on its quality and composition. To create a wine using only ripe berries. The collection time depends on the variety and the region where the grapes are grown. After the raw material is assembled, the undigested and “sick” grains are removed from the raw material.
Expensive wines are made from hand-picked grapes. Mechanical assembly not only adversely affects the bushes, but also affects the taste of the drink.
The most popular grapes used in the wine industry are:
- Cabernet Sauvignon
The collected raw materials undergo the following processing steps:
- Sink grapes.
- Separation of berries.
- Steam treatment.
Steam processing stage is used only in the manufacture of white wines. It prevents oxidation and accelerates the secretion of juice. You can find out more at the school sommelier in St. Petersburg. The technology for the production of wine from grapes involves heating the pulp (crushed berries with juice). When a certain temperature is reached, coloring and flavoring substances are transferred from the berries to the juice.
Wort preparation and fermentation
Juice for the future of wine is prepared using a special press. In addition to it, a certain amount of cake is added to the fermentation tanks. It contains natural yeast and speeds up the process of fermentation of juice.
To enhance the fermentation process, in addition to natural yeast, special wine yeast is used. The fermentation process involves the conversion of sugar from juice to alcohol. The first five days there is a phase of active fermentation. During this period, about 70% of sugar is converted to alcohol. Carbon dioxide, which is actively emitted at the same time, is released through an open container.
Then comes the stage of passive fermentation. It lasts about three weeks. At this time it is necessary to protect the wine from oxygen. The containers with the future drink are closed, but they leave the possibility of the release of carbon dioxide through a special valve.
For clarification of the product, special enzyme substances are used. They bind the invisible coloring particles into more dense formations and remove them from the sediment.
After the end of the fermentation process, the wine is preserved. This process is only used in the factory. Domestic wines, because of their quick use, do not need to be preserved. To increase the durability of wine, the following preservation technologies are used:
- The use of preservatives.
Both natural and chemical substances can be used as preservatives: sodium benzoate, acetic acid or salicylic acid. Unfortunately, some of them may adversely affect the taste of wines. Therefore, expensive French grape wine is rarely subject to preservation.
In the production and storage of wine, various technological capacities are used:
- Oak barrels. The most popular vessels for wine. The product, which is contained in such containers, is endowed with a special bouquet of flavors. Many famous types of wine undergo aging in barrels. Ready drink turns out not only fragrant, but also transparent. The process of transformation of esters while keeping wine in barrels is still poorly understood. But this does not affect the popularity of the use of such oak wood containers in technological processes of making wine.
- Earthen vessels. Ceramic jugs are used for aging wine from time immemorial. In the South Caucasus and some European countries, clay containers filled with wine are buried in the ground to maintain the desired storage temperature.
- Metal containers. Stainless steel and titanium can be used to store wine. Unfortunately, in addition to practical advantages, such vessels are poorly suited for the content of this noble drink. They can adversely affect the taste of the wine.
Briefly about the technology of production of various wines
Such a drink goes through the following stages:
- Collection and grinding of berries.
- Defending the wort.
- Fermentation at 20 degrees.
- Wine transfusion to clear sediment.
White wine has a more subtle and delicate flavor. The aroma can catch a delicate floral and fruity notes.
- Collection and processing of raw materials.
- Fermentation at a temperature of 30 degrees.
- Saturation of the wort with oxygen every three days.
- Infusion of pulp or short-term heating of the wort to 50 degrees.
Heating allows you to accelerate the return of taste.
The main process in the pink winemaking industry is to insist on the wine material for white wines on the wort of red grapes. Then the raw material is poured into containers and infused at a cool temperature for several years.
In the production of beverages with a high alcohol content, a special stage is added to the technological process. At the time of fermentation of the wort, ethyl alcohol is added. That allows to increase not only the degree, but also the sweetness of the drink.
In such beverages, carbon dioxide is not removed from the wine material, but remains in it. Some types of such drinks are artificially champanized. This happens after bottling the wine.To do this, they add a special yeast culture and sugar syrup. The process of saturation of beverages with carbon dioxide can take up to two years.
The production technology of noble wines for several hundred years has not changed. When creating these drinks is still used manual labor. But this is justified by the taste of the resulting product.