Scripture on war and military service
The Holy Scripture constitutes the first and foremost source of the dogma of the Orthodox Church. Therefore, those who are interested in issues related to the attitude of the Christian to the war and military service, it is natural to turn to the Word of God.
We are convinced that both in the Holy Scriptures and among the holy fathers of the Church one can find exhaustive answers to the main questions connected with the spiritual problems of the modern army. And these answers can serve as a guide for Orthodox people who are somehow connected with military service.
Recall what the Holy Scriptures say about military service, it is especially important in our time, when Protestant ideas are spread in society that it is supposed that a Christian is prohibited from participating in a war and serving in the army and even taking up arms. At the same time, attempts are made to substantiate such representations by references to the Bible.
Consider what the Scriptures say about war and military service, based on the patristic interpretation of the texts of Scripture.
"Then Jesus said to him: Return your sword to its place, for all who take the sword will perish by the sword."(Matt. 26: 52).
This quote is most often cited in support of the idea that Christians cannot be served in the army or take part in war. Although there is not a word about war here, and the Savior does not refer to a warrior, but to a civilian (as we would say now), like the apostle Peter was. However, words about"All who take the sword"with a certain understanding can be attributed to all warriors. But did the holy fathers perceive this place?
Here is what we readSt. John Chrysostom: “So, for two reasons, He wanted to reassure the disciples: first, the threat of punishment to those who are starting an attack:for everythinghe said,those who took the sword will perish by the sword;secondly, by the fact that He tolerates this voluntarily. ” As we see, according to the holy father, these words refer to those who begin the bloodshed, therefore, do not refer to those who are forced to defend themselves.
If we understand this phrase literally, then we will get to reject it, because we know that not every weapon that takes it in its hands perishes from a weapon.Therefore, it is important to know from which sword, as explainedBlessed Jerome,the initiator of the attack will perish: “From the sword of fire that is turned before heaven (Gen. 3:24), and from the sword of the Spirit, which is described among the whole armor of God(Eph. 6: 11–17)
Rev. Theodore the Studitewrites: “It is not the nature of the church of God to avenge for itself with scourging, exile, and the dungeon. In addition, I want to say about the case of the Pavlikians and their persecution: after all, church law does not threaten anyone with a knife, sword, or scourge. For the Scripture says,all who take the sword will die by the sword(Matt. 26: 52). But since all these means were applied, it was as if a pillar of evil had flared up from the depths of hell - this Christ-fighting heresy, destroying everyone. ” That is, St. Theodore believes that these words do not refer to people in general, but to the Church and its bishops, who are the successors of the apostles who heard the command of the sword from Christ. Therefore, the Church cannot persecute heretics with the help of corporal punishment and physical executions. This is a sin. And since shortly before the fall into this sin in relation to the heretics, the Pavlikians, then, according to the monk, the church discord about the fourth marriage of the emperor, which resulted in persecution of the Orthodox, was allowed as a punishment.
It is worth quoting words andBlessed Theophylact of Bulgaria:“Peter was the one who drew the sword, as John says (John 18: 10). And he had a sword with him, as shortly before that he had slaughtered a lamb, which was eaten at the supper. We do not condemn Peter, for he did this, being jealous not about himself, but about the Master. The Lord, teaching him to live the gospel, instructs him not to use the sword. ”
So, although the holy fathers, in their interpretations, do not approve of turning to arms and starting bloodshed - which is quite natural, but none of them understood these words as prohibiting military service for Christians in general. Such an interpretation is found only in Tertullian, but he was not only not a saint, but, moreover, was a heretic. And the fact that an opinion like him was not characteristic of the early Church follows from the references to pious Christian warriors, who were famous before Tertullian under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
The Protestants, who insist on this understanding of the above words from the Gospel of Matthew and who do not recognize the authority of the holy fathers, may argue that if they literally understand the words:"All who take the sword will perish by the sword",- Let these words of the Savior also literally understand:“Do not think that I have come to bring peace to the earth: I did not come to bring peace, but a sword”(Matt. 10: 34), and especially the following fragment of the Gospel narration:“But now, whoever has the bag, take it, also the bag: and whoever does not have, sell your clothes and buy a sword ... They said: Lord! Here, here are two swords. He said to them: Pretty. ”(Luke 22: 36, 38). And if Protestants refuse to understand these words literally, but prefer to interpret the given fragments spiritually, then it is logical then that the words spoken to the Apostle Peter also be understood spiritually.
Sometimes they try to justify the pacifist teaching by reference to the commandment"Dont kill"(Ex. 20: 13). A. Baidukov wrote well on this score: “Never consider war as unacceptable and in no case, referring to the commandment"Thou shalt not kill,"it is impossible, since such a negation would contradict the Holy Scriptures. God gave Moses not only the commandment"Thou shalt not kill."He also instructed him on how to fight a war in order to defeat enemies (Ex. 21, 22). ”Often God himself ordered the Israelites to start wars against other nations (1 Sam. 15: 3; Josh. 4: 13), and God appointed the death penalty for many crimes (Ex. 21: 12, 15; Lev. 20: 11, etc.).
In ancient times, God's chosen people led frequent wars with neighboring nations. According to the law of Moses, every Israelite, except the Levites, was to carry a weapon (Num. 1: 3; 2: 33; 26: 2). The Holy Scripture contains many verses that say that the Lord Himself blessed the military service, taught the prophet Moses what military units should be in the Israeli people, how to deploy, and who to govern.
The capture of the city of Guy and his burning. OK. 950 g. Vatican Apostolic Library, Rome, Italy
"In the Old Testament, we find many indications that it is necessary to learn war (Judg. 3: 2), how to go to war (Num. 10: 9), what to do after the war (Num. 3: 19; Deut. 31 : nineteen). The war was a necessity for the Jews, since the pagan nations around them fought constant wars with their neighbors. Moreover, the possibility of peaceful coexistence with the professed idolatry and the peoples corrupted to an extreme degree presented a great danger to the Jews. Therefore, such wars are called in Holy Scripture the wars of the Lord (1 Kings 17: 47; 2 Chron. 20: 15), since they were a much smaller moral evil than the seduction into idolatry. ” Therefore, God ordered His people:“Avenge the Midianites for the children of Israel, and afterward you will go to your people.”(Num. 31: 2);"In the cities of these nations, which the Lord your God gives to you, do not leave a soul alive, but put a spell on them: the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, as I commanded you The Lord your God(Deut. 20: 16–17);“And the Lord sent thee on a journey, saying,“ Go and curse the ungodly Amalekites and fight against them, until you destroy them. ””(1 Sam. 15: 18).
“Time to love, and time to hate; time to war, and time to peace "(Eccles. 3: 8) This phrase seems to provide for a definite place for war in the conditions of our fallen world.
But, turning to patristic interpretations, we will see thatSt. Gregory of Nyssainterprets this place as referring to spiritual warfare, which every believer should lead with passions and sins: “If you have enlightened the timeliness of love and hate, then we shall love one, and with the other we shall fight. For Ecclesiastes says:time to war and time to peace(Eccles. 3, 8). You see a horde of resisting passions ... Pay attention to the varied preparation for the battle, as a resisting army in a thousand places threatens to attack your city, sends spies, attracts traitors, arranges outposts and ambushes,concludes the conditions of help, procures military weapons, slingers, shooters, hand-to-hand fighters, horse power, and all these things oppose you. Of course, the meaning of what has been said is not unknown to you, you know who is a traitor, who is a spy, who are waiting in ambush, who are slingers, who are arrows, who are hand-to-hand fighters and a squad of equestrians. Therefore, all this having in mind, it is necessary for us to arm, call on our allies, reconnoiter about the subjects we are under, does anyone favor the enemies, provide for ambushes on the way, protect ourselves from being hit by shields, cover ourselves from above by engaging in hand-to-hand combat and dig up the approach to us cavalry. And it is decent for others to protect the walls with fortifications, so that their battering walls did not shake ... But in order to clarify this concept more clearly, let us say: this is the first attack of temptation, from which passion began. That's who is the spy of our forces! It was presented, for example, to the eyes of a spectacle that lust could renew in us. The enemy is the one who tests your strength in you, whether they are strong and ready to rally or weak and ready to surrender. For if you did not take upon yourself the bowed appearance, and the powers of understanding did not lose heart with what you saw,but impassively you transferred the meeting, immediately immediately horrified the spy, as if showing him what kind of spears the armed militia of the warriors, I mean the militia of thoughts ... in a state of being able to clarify with clarity about this crowd of slingers, shooters and lancers; because offenders, people who are irritable and blasphemous, presumably insulting, instead of arrows or stones, shoot and place biting words and pass without armor and carelessly strike in the middle of the heart ... Therefore, if we enlightened a host of enemies, then we must lead and fight. ”
The Lord Jesus Christ himself warned that wars would accompany all the earthly existence of mankind:“Also hear about wars and military rumors. Look, do not be terrified, for everything must be, but this is not the end. ”(Matt. 24: 6).
St. John Chrysostomwrites that “He speaks of wars to those who were to be in Jerusalem,” that is, they refer to the Roman campaigns in Judea in the first century to pacify the rebellious Jews. However, other holy fathers considered it possible to refer these words to events on the eve of the end of the world.Blessed Theophylact of Bulgaria,for example, he writes: “As flour comes first, and then it gives birth, so this century will give birth to the future only after turmoil and war”
The interpretation of these words, givenRev. Justin (Popovich):“Sinisterity and ill-will, and through them, pride creates wars between people, between nations, between kingdoms.Where did you get enmity and strife? Is it not from here, from your desires, who are at war in your members?(James 4: 1) ... Irritated by Christ, the Gospel of Christ, the Church of Christ, Christ-bearing Christians, a sin at the end of the world will consume the fiercest wars between people and nations to shame Christ and his infirmity. And those of little faith will ask: how can Christ be God, when His teaching cannot take possession of the world, eliminate wars, so that peace among people and nations reigns? The fears and horrors of wars, according to the dialectic of the director of wars, will be used by Christobores as evidence of the weakness of Christ and Christianity. It will seduce many. The Savior warns His followers about this: FromLook, do not be terrified; for everything must be.Is that right? Yes,for the evil enraged and multiplied among people must manifest itself through the cannibal wars ... The Savior speaks of wars as something that His followers will not cause, but what they will suffer from. They should not cause war; if war befall them, they must oppose their gospel virtues: faith, prayer, patience, meekness, mercy, love, fasting and the rest. For it is in the Gospel way that war is waged against war, against sin, against the devil.Our battle is not against blood and flesh, but against authorities, against authorities, against the rulers of the darkness of this age (Eph. 6:12)
Speaking of the promises, it is necessary to mention that in the Old Testament there is a promise about the coming overcoming of wars:“And at that time I will make a covenant for them with the beasts of the field, and with the birds of the heavens, and with them that crawl along the earth; and I will destroy the bow, and the sword, and the war from the land of that, and will make them live in safety "(Hos. 2: 18).
Blessed Jerome of Stridonunderstands this as an indication of reconciliation in Christ of converted heathens and Jews: “And after reconciliation of everything, bow, and sword, and war will be destroyed. For there will be no need for weapons when there is no war. Israel will unite with the Gentiles, and the words of Deuteronomy will be fulfilled:rejoice the nations with his people(Deut. 32: 43), that is, in the Church in which He crushed the power of bows, shields, swords, and war, and after the crushing and extermination, their believers will sleep safely and rest with one shepherd. ”Blessed Theodorite of KirHe also made this promise to the Church, but more to the life of her children in the next century as one of the future good
ANDSt. Cyril of AlexandriaHe considered this promise fulfilled during the Christian Church, but he understood it as perfect through the military prowess of the Roman generals: “When, says the Lord, I will destroy the names of the idols from the earth, then I will build a union of the world with all wild and barbaric peoples. Then the disasters caused by enemies and war will cease, and they will live without knowing any fears.I will destroy the weapon and the sword,and we see that it really came true. For when the most glorious Roman commanders attained dominion over all and subjugated the heavenly kingdom (as God provide this glory to them deliberately), then the Persians limited themselves to worrying only about their state, and the attacks of other barbarian peoples on countries and cities "
As the main cause of wars arising against believers, Holy Scripture in many places calls them grave sins against God and a violation of faithfulness to Him. The war is the retribution of the people for the common sins, the most for the sin of apostasy.
Here is how St. Deborah speaks about this in her song:"They chose a new god, because the war at the gate"(Judges 5: 8), and the Holy Spirit declares the same through Judith:“When they avoided the path He had bequeathed to them, in many wars they suffered very strong defeats, were taken prisoner, in a strange land, the temple of God was destroyed, and their cities were taken by the enemies(Judith 5: 18).
And in the book of the prophet Isaiah we read:“They did not want to walk in His ways and did not obey His law. And He poured out on them the wrath of His wrath and the ghastlyness of war: she surrounded them with flames on all sides, but they did not notice; and burned with them, but they did not understand it with their hearts "(Is. 42: 24–25).St. John Chrysostomremarks on these lines: “Look, God clearly reveals that He is deliberately punishing others, but He himself does not suffer torment from anyone.”
God helps in righteous wars
However, if believers are faithful to God and enemies have come out against them, then the Lord always helps to win, even in spite of the repeated numerical superiority of the enemy.In this case, the war becomes a way to show the power of God and glorify the Lord and the true faith, including in the face of the enemies of the Gentiles.
This idea was clearly expressed during the dispute between David and Goliath, when, after the Philistine hero, cursed the future king of Israel in the name of his gods,“David answered the Philistine: you are going against me with a sword and a spear and a shield, and I am going against you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, which you have reviled; now the Lord will deliver you into my hand, and I will kill you, and take off your head, and give the bodies of the Philistines to the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the earth, and the whole earth will know that there is a God in Israel; and the whole assembly will know that the Lord does not save with a sword and a spear, for this is the war of the Lord, and He will give you into our hands. ”(1 Kings 17: 45–47).
And so it happened, and subsequently King David praised the Lord for this:“For thou hast girded me with strength for war, and threw down the insurgents under my feet”(Ps. 17: 40).
And this is how Zechariah the prophet speaks of pious warriors in a just war:“And they will be like heroes trampling [the enemies] in the war, like street dirt, and fight, because the Lord is with them, and they will shame the riders on horses”(Zah.10: 5).
Humble awareness of their strength and contribution to victory is given in Scripture as the only correct one for a believing warrior,"For it is not from the multitude of troops that there is victory in war, but power comes from heaven"(1 Mac. 3: 19).
What is said in general application to the whole army applies to each soldier individually. God keeps faithful to Him:“During famine he will deliver you from death, and in war from the hand of the sword.”(Job 5: 20)
About military case
Those Protestants who claim that God supposedly forbids Christians from participating in a legitimate war and even just serving in the army cannot answer the question why nowhere in the Bible does anything of the kind directly and clearly say. To justify their ideas, they have to customize biblical quotations for them in their own interpretation, while in these fragments nothing bad is said about the military feat.
So, for example, the New Testament speaks of the centurion, who asked the Lord to heal his servant and who received the highest praise from the Savior:“I tell you that I have not found such a faith in Israel”(Luke 7: 9). Another example is given in Scripture: “A husband named Cornelius, a centurion from a regiment called Italians, pious and fearful of God ... he clearly saw in the vision about the ninth hour of the day the Angel of God” (Acts 10: 1-3).And neither the Lord nor the apostles said a single word in condemnation of their military service and did not order to leave it to neither the first nor the second centurion. Similarly, the warriors who came to St. John the Baptist and asked: “What should we do?” - in response, they heard not a command about desertion, but a call to refrain from sin during their service:“Do not offend anyone, do not slander and be content with your salary”(Luke 3:14). The blessed Theophylact writes that the holy Forerunner “convinces the soldiers not to abduct, but to be content with obrachs, that is, with a salary, which is usually given from the king. Look, as John is a simple class of people, as unkind people, he convinces you to do something good, that is, to give others, and tax collectors and warriors to refrain from evil. For these were not yet capable, could not do anything good, but it was enough for them not to do evil. ”
Finally, the apostle Paul, speaking of the manifestations of the faith, listed the Old Testament righteous and directly praised them for their military exploits:“And what else will I say? There will be no time for me to narrate about Gideon, about Barak, about Samson and Jephthah, about David, Samuel and (the other) prophets, who by faith defeated the kingdoms, created the truth, received promises ... were strong in the war, drove off the shelves of others. ”(Heb. 11: 32–34).
Rev. Ephraim the Syrianreveals in more detail those events to which the apostle refers: “But in order not to list separately and in detail all the works of the faith of the Old Testament righteous, he only briefly points to them.And what else,He speaks,will say? I don’t have enough time to tell me about Gideon,that is, the faith of Gideon, with three hundred men who smote the ten thousand Midianites (see: Judg. 7: 1, 7),and Varaka,by faith, the victorious army of Sisera (see: Judg. 4: 7),and Samsonwho, thanks to his faith, beat a thousand people with his donkey's jaw (see: Judg. 15: 15),and Jephthahwho by his faith destroyed 22 cities of the Ammonites (see: Judg. 11: 33),and davide,who, thanks to his faith, struck Goliath (see: 1 Samuel 17: 4),and Samuelwho by his faith defeated the Philistines (see: 1 Samuel 7:10),and about other prophets " Thus, we see that “in the apostle’s eyes, military exploits are not sinful and disagreeable to God, but, on the contrary, works of faith, to which the Lord Himself gave strength to people who trusted in Him and dedicated their victories to His name”
So, in the New Testament there is nowhere to reprimand the military rank, which would certainly be if the military service contradicted the moral dignity of a Christian.A "generally accepted apostolic rule -everyone stay in that rank in which is called(1 Cor. 7:20) - made it possible to be in the Roman army and the soldiers of the Christians "
Scripture in many places gives instructions to the commander, who is going to wage war:“A wise man is strong, and a rational man strengthens his strength. Therefore, with deliberation, wage war against you, and success [will be] with many meetings. ”(Prov. 24: 5–6);"Enterprises get firmness through a meeting, and by meeting lead the war"(Prov. 20: 18),"Do not advise ... with the fearful of war"(Sir. 38: 11).
The need for a military leader to consider planning the future campaign deliberately, weighing all the pros and cons and discussing it at the military council, the Lord also refers, taking it as an example for a parable:“What king, going to war against another king, will not sit down and advise before, is he strong with ten thousand to resist going to him with twenty thousand?”(Luke 14: 31).
St. Gregory of Dvoeslovso says about this dictum: “The king against the king, equal to the equal, goes to war, and yet, if he confesses that he cannot resist, he sends an embassy and asks for peace.So, what tears should we ask ourselves for mercy, who, on this terrible ordeal, will come to court with our King, not equal with equal, but who both the state, and the weakness, and everything that we depend on, are inferior? ”
The problem of low wages for officers and professional soldiers is also covered in Scripture, where this state of affairs is unequivocally condemned:"From two my heart was grieved ... if a warrior suffers from poverty, and reasonable men are neglected"(Sir. 27: 24–25)
Also, the apostle Paul speaks as something taken for granted about the need for the state to contain soldiers:"What warrior ever serves in his content?"(1 Cor. 9: 7).
The warrior, due to such qualities as stamina and rejection of everyday affairs, is taken as the image of a Christian by the first order:"So endure the suffering, like a good warrior of Jesus Christ"(2 Tim. 2: 3),"No warrior binds himself to the affairs of everyday life to please the commander"(2 Tim. 2: 4).
The Scripture also speaks of the spiritual preparation of righteous warriors before the battle. It consists, first of all, in the right aspiration of thoughts towards God:“If the regiment gangs up against me, my heart will not fear; if war rises against me, and then I will hope ”(Ps. 26: 3);“They rely on weapons and valor, and we rely on Almighty God, Who by one wave can overthrow those who are coming towards us and the whole world”(2 Mac. 8: 18). And secondly, in intensified prayer before the battle:"And the assembly gathered to be ready for war and to pray, and to ask for mercy and regret"(1 Mac. 3: 44).
“It should be said about some issues of spiritual purity, especially relevant in the army: it is a matter of chastity, purity of the language and prayer."Do not commit adultery"- the Lord gave this commandment to Moses even on Mount Sinai ... When the Jewish soldiers under the leadership of Moses defeated the pagan nations, their enemies decided that if the soldiers sinned, the grace will retreat, God will stop helping the Jews and they can be defeated. And they sent corrupt women to the army. The soldiers fell with them, grace departed from the troops of the Jews and in this battle they were defeated.
In connection with the purity of the body should be said about the purity of the language. The question of the purity of speech stands before the warriors in their impartial acuteness. Everyone knows what strong soldier's expressions are. Even the officers do not disdain them. Scripture condemns this sin:“Language is a small dick, but it does a lot.Look, a small fire how much substance ignites! And the tongue is fire, adorned with wrong; the language ... defiles the whole body and inflames the circle of life, being itself inflamed from hell ... We bless God and the Father with it, and we curse humans created in the image of God. Out of the same mouth comes a blessing and a curse: my brethren, this must not be so, ”- the holy Apostle James writes (James 3: 5–6, 9–10) ”
Scripture teaches compassion for a vanquished and disarmed enemy, warning against feelings of bitterness and gloating:“Do not rejoice when your enemy falls, and do not let your heart rejoice when it stumbles. Otherwise, the Lord will see, and this will be displeasing in His sight ... ”(Prov. 24: 17–18) Fighting sin, it is important not to join it, not to succumb to evil. Therefore, the Apostle Paul wrote:“Do not avenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to the wrath of God ... So, if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he thirsts, give him drink: for by doing this, you will gather burning coals upon his head. Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. ”(Romans 12: 19–21). "These words justify the need for a merciful attitude towards the wounded and prisoners."
Already in Old Testament times, the participation of priests in the war was condemned:“At that time, the priests fell in battle, wishing to be glorified by courage and recklessly went to war”(1 Mac. 5: 67). In this phrase one can also see an indication of a conceited mood before the battle as the one that leads to defeat.
Finally, it makes sense to cite another statement, although it relates more to law enforcement officers than to army soldiers and officers. But still it is worth considering it, especially in the context of the topic of the admissibility of the use of the sword, that is, weapons:“The boss is God's servant, to you for good. But if you do evil, fear it, for it is not in vain that it carries a sword: it is God's servant, the avenger in punishment to the one who does evil. ”(Rom. 13: 4). Below we quote patristic interpretations of these words.
Rev. Ephraim the Syrian:"For God's servant ishe, because through him the will of God is accomplished over the righteous and the wicked.If you do evil, fearand don't dofor it is not without purpose (vain) that it is encircled by the sword. "
St. John Chrysostom:“Many people first mastered virtues for the sake of their superiors, and later clung to it because of the fear of God. The future does not so much affect the people who are more rude.Therefore, he who predisposes people's souls with fear and honor so that they are able to perceive the word of teaching, is justly called God's servant ... You must obey, say (apostle), not only because, disobeying, oppose God and from God and people bring great disasters upon you, but also because the head as the guardian of peace and civil amenities is your greatest benefactor ”[
Blessed Theophylact:“So it’s not the boss who produces fear in us, but our vices, on account of which the sword of the chief is, that is, the power to punish. The chief, he says, is not in vain girdled with a sword, but in order to punish the perverse ”
Summing up, we repeat once again: attempts to prove that the Bible condemns military service in principle and forbids it for believers, they are untenable, they are based on arbitrary and contrived interpretations of individual Scripture, while completely ignoring the others.
The Lord Jesus Christ warned that wars would accompany all the time of man’s earthly existence.
As the main cause of wars arising against believers, Holy Scripture in many places calls them grave sins against God and a violation of faithfulness to Him.But if believers are faithful to God and enemies have come out against them, then the Lord always helps to win, and such a war becomes a way to manifest the power of God and glorify the Lord and true faith. Therefore, in the Old Testament, there were many times wars, of which some took place at the command of God and were committed by their holy righteous.
The New Testament also repeatedly mentions the soldiers with praise, moreover, never once condemning their service and not ordering them to leave it. The feats of the Old Testament commanders are also glorified.
Scripture in many places gives instructions to the commander, who is about to wage war, calling for a deliberate approach to planning a future campaign, weighing all the pros and cons and discussing it at the military council. The issues of monetary allowance for servicemen are also touched upon, military stamina and abandonment of everyday care for the sake of their ministry are approved.
Scripture also speaks of the spiritual preparation of warriors for battle, which consists, firstly, in the correct striving of thoughts towards God, and secondly, in intensified prayer.
Archpriest Alexander Grigoriev
John Chrysostom, prelate. Interpretation on St. Matthew the Evangelist, 84, 1 ().
Jerome of Stridon, blissful. Interpretation of the gospel of Matthew ().
Theodore the Studite, Rev. The messagesM., 2003. Book. 2. P. 232.
Theophylact Bulgarian, blissful. Interpretation of the gospel of Matthew, 26. ().
See: A. Baydukov. Christian doctrine of war and military service // Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate. 1999. № 8.
Galbiati E., Piazza A. Difficult pages of the Bible. M., 1995. p. 262.
Gregory of Nyssa, saint. Creations M., 1861. Part 2. S. 220.
John Chrysostom, prelate. Interpretation on St. Matthew the Evangelist, 75, 1.
Theophylact Bulgarian, blissful. Interpretation of the gospel of Matthew, 24.
Justin (Popovich), Archimandrite. Interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew // Bulletin of the German Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. 2002. № 1. S. 76.
Jerome of Stridon, blissful. Creations Kiev, 1894. P. 12. P. 182-183.
Theodoret of Kir, blessed. Creations M., 1857. Part 4. P. 260–261.
Cyril of Alexandria, prelate. Creations M., 1892. Part 9. p. 96.
John Chrysostom, prelate. Interpretation of the prophet Isaiah, 42 ().
Theophylact Bulgarian, blissful. Interpretation of the gospel of Luke 3 ().
Ephraim the Syrian, Rev. Interpretation on the Epistle to the Hebrews ().
See: A. Baydukov. Christian doctrine of war and military service.
Nikolsky V. Christianity, patriotism and war // Orthodox interlocutor. Kazan, 1904. T. 2. Part 2. S. 157.
Gregory Dvoeslov, prelate. Forty Conversations on the Gospel, 38.6 ().
P. V. GerasimovMilitary service in the context of Orthodox morality ().
See: Sergius the Short, priest. What does it mean: "Thou shalt not kill ..."? // Spas. 2005. No. 6 (15).
Ephraim the Syrian, Rev. Interpretation on the Epistle to the Romans ().
John Chrysostom, prelate. Conversations on the Epistle to the Romans, 23.2 ().
Theophylact Bulgarian, blissful. Interpretation on the Epistle to the Romans ().