Infectious and chronic mononucleosis - how to get rid of the disease
A few words about the disease
As a rule, in a child, infectious mononucleosis is accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes, fever, fever and sore throat.
Earlier, domestic medicine referred to this disease as Filatov's disease, which for the first time in 1885 described its symptoms in children. The disease causes the herpes virus, which explains the rash on the skin, and the main source of infection is the man. Infection is possible through the airborne process:
- through saliva.
Symptoms of the disease
The most common course of mononucleosis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- enlarged spleen and liver;
- mononuclear tonsillitis, in which the tonsils are covered with dirty-gray dotted films, which are easily removed with tweezers;
- lymphatic gland enlargement and inflammation (as a rule, it occurs along the posterolateral surface of the neck, when they are woven into chains or conglomerates and are palpable enough for the palpation);
- pain in the joints and / or muscles;
- high susceptibility to another kind of infectious agents;
- frequent herpetic lesions;
- loss of appetite;
- bleeding gums;
- runny nose and sore throat.
It should be noted that in children, not all of the listed symptoms during mononucleosis will manifest to some extent.
There are other types of symptoms that indicate that the baby has been infected with infectious mononucleosis. In this case, we are talking about a blood test, in which atypical mononuclear cells are found, which unmistakably confirm the presence of this disease.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosing mononucleosis in many cases is difficult. This is due to the fact that the symptoms of this disease in children often indicate a clinical picture that may be typical of many other viral diseases. The main sign that is able to indicate the presence of mononucleosis in a child is that certain similar symptoms persist for a sufficiently long period of time.
However, not only the symptoms of this disease in a child will be the basis for a pediatrician that will allow you to prescribe a specific treatment. As a rule, two blood tests are taken. The first test is necessary to confirm or refute the presence of heterophilic agglutinins, which is positive in 90% of cases.The second is a blood smear test, in which the presence of atypical lymphocytes is possible.
Extremely rarely present symptoms make it possible to differentiate infectious mononucleosis with angina, rubella, HIV, diphtheria or lymphogranulomatosis.
In the event that a child has mild or moderate infectious mononucleosis, they do not resort to hospitalization, and the treatment itself is carried out at home. Very important, and it also emphasizes Dr. Komarovsky (see video), comply not only with bed rest, but also comply with all the prescriptions and recommendations of the attending physician.
In case of enlargement of the liver and spleen, it will be recommendeddiet number 5. It should be noted that modern medicine has a sufficient number of methods by which effective treatment of mononucleosis is possible.
In particular, therapy consists in:
- elimination of intoxication of the child’s body;
- antiseptic gargle;
- taking fortifying agents;
- symptomatic treatment;
- prevention of possible allergic reactions with the help of medicinal desensitizing agents;
- use, if necessary, antipyretic drugs.
To reduce body temperature in children, pediatricians recommend using only Paracetamol or its analogues. Using Aspirin is strictly prohibited. The same applies to children whose age does not exceed 18 years. Failure to follow this recommendation may cause brain and liver damage. In the case of diagnosing a child of mononucleosis, treatment with the help of heating is prohibited, since it only aggravates the condition of the baby.
Fresh vegetables and fruits, low-fat dairy products, cereals, fish, soups and boiled meat are recommended. This is also described in detail in the video.
So that the child's treatment is effective,It is necessary to adhere to this diet not only in the process of recovery, but also for six months after completely getting rid of this disease.
It is also necessary to limit physical activities that can provoke rupture of the spleen. If a child who has been diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis has nasal breathing, it is necessary to apply ephedrine solution, using it no more than five times a day.
It should also be noted that treatment may include the use of splenectomy or surgery to remove the spleen. As a rule, it is justified by the increased size of this body and increased functionality. In this case, quite often there is an aggravation of the course of the disease.
Prevention as well as the effects of the disease
A separate set of measures for the prevention of this disease does not exist. Therefore, all pediatricians advise to adhere to the same rules that relate to the prevention of other respiratory viral diseases. However, there is non-specific prevention of mononucleosis, which is based on improving immunity in children in order to create the general resistance of the organism to various diseases.
- a variety of mental disorders;
- febrile syndrome;
- a decrease in the number of platelets and / or leukocytes;
- red blood cell death;
- rupture of the spleen, which is accompanied by severe abdominal pain, decreased pressure, fainting.
In addition to all of the above, infectious mononucleosis can also be complicated by other types of pathologies that cause streptococci, pneumococci or staphylococci. Getting them into the body also causes a rash on the skin or mucous membranes of the body. Cases of overlap of the upper respiratory tract with the tonsils are also not excluded.
In quite rare cases, children have bilateral lung infiltration, accompanied by severe oxygen starvation and / or severe hepatitis.It must be remembered that, on the basis of each specific case, the disease in children may go unnoticed or may be accompanied by a train of complications. That is why it is so important to get proper medical care in time.