How to plant seedlings in open ground? Tips experienced gardeners
An attempt to independently grow planting material is not always successful, and then there is only one way out - to buy. We will tell you where and how to choose young plants of tomatoes, peppers and cabbages, how to prepare the soil and how to plant seedlings.
How to choose seedlings
On how correctly you choose the seedlings of vegetables in the future depends on their harvest. Weak, overgrown or, on the contrary, under-grown plants are poorly accepted, they are “ill” for a long time and as a result they produce about 30% less vegetables than those that were planted in the ground strong and healthy. Therefore, buying seedlings, follow these guidelines:
- The best place to buy is a nursery. There, vegetable crops are grown in the same conditions and with the observance of technology, and therefore they are more viable than their counterparts,cherished gardeners-amateur;
- Give preference to plants sold in individual containers: peat pots, cups, etc., that is, those that have a “native” land. They are easier to take root in the new soil, and you can be sure that their root system is not damaged. If it is not possible to buy seedlings in a container, then look for one whose roots are maximally protected from sunlight and obvetrivaniya (for example, sealed in bags with lumps of wet earth);
- Do not purchase "overgrown". They have minimal chances to survive in the open field, and they bear much worse fruit. Seedlings of tomatoes should have 8 leaves, cucumbers - 4-6, cabbage - 4;
- Dried seedlings have low viability, so choose only fresh, with a developed root system and strong stems. Remember: the longer the plant is outside its usual environment - the soil, the less likely it is to survive and bring a good harvest;
- Keep in mind that spots and light streaks on the leaves are signs of disease.
And now about some features of each vegetable.
- Healthycabbage seedlingshas glossy light green leaves with a bluish bloom. In their outlines determine what kind of cabbage head will be in the future. If the leaves are round, then the head will look like a ball, the oval foliage ensures an elongated head. Choose cabbage with stems that have a purple hue. Such cabbage seedlings are hardened and able to withstand even at low temperatures.
- Good seedlings of pepper have leaves of different colors: the top should be a little lighter than the bottom. If you are trying to sell plants with the same colored foliage, they are most likely grown with accelerators and growth retardants. Such seedlings will take root poorly and will be low-yielding, and therefore there is no point in planting it. Discard plants with flowers. Pepper seedlings are quite whimsical and do not tolerate a transplant very well, during which they can “throw off” flowers.
- Strong stem and light green leaves are signs of healthy tomato seedlings. Be sure to pay attention to the cotyledon knee (the distance from the root to the first lower leaflets): the smaller it is, the stronger the plant. Seedlings of tomatoes with dark green leaves should alert you. This is usually a sign of excess nitrogen.Plant growth has been artificially stimulated, and in the case of seedlings, the consequences of such actions will lead to low yields.
For transportation of seedlings, it is better to use rigid containers, selecting their sizes depending on the width and height of the plants. This can be a plastic vegetable box or a shallow bucket. Such transportation will help avoid crushing and damage to seedlings.
How are you cheated: sellers tricks
In pursuit of profit, some sellers have resorted to not entirely honest ways of selling seedlings.
Stimulate and slow down
To speed up the growth of vegetables, it is “stuffed” with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. When there is a danger of remaining in the hands with “resharfing”, growth inhibitors are used. It is impossible to plant seedlings grown in this way, since the violation of technology leads to a decrease in yield. Unfortunately, to determine such a violation of technology by a plant is almost impossible.
Only one way out - to buy seedlings in the nursery, where the observance of the growing process is strictly monitored.
Fedot, but not that
On vegetable seedlings, too, is "fashion." A rumor that some sort of cucumber or tomato gives untold yields,generates increased demand for it. Vendors play on this, realizing under the guise of superplodovoy varieties of vegetables other, less popular.
Not every agronomist can determine a variety by the configuration of leaves, but an ordinary amateur gardener even more so. That is why seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and other garden vegetation should be bought in places and from trusted sellers. This may be a nursery, a neighbor, she herself sowed the seeds and received a surplus, as well as a specialized store.
Doomed in advance
Seedlings of cucumbers, squash and squash poorly tolerate transplantation, and even having taken root, will never give a good harvest. Do not buy it. These vegetable crops grow well in the open ground from seeds. Are you afraid of frost? Make a greenhouse for cucumbers, and cover the holes with squash and zucchini with insulation.
These tips will be useful to you if you decide to put the cultivation of vegetables on stream and become a farmer.
Soil preparation for planting seedlings
Beforeplant seedlingsin the ground, should prepare the soil. We recommend to start in the fall: having decided on the place, dig the ground there to the depth of a spade bayonet.Leave the earth clods unground, so it is better to freeze, which will kill most of the larvae of garden pests.
Some gardeners advise in the spring to sanitize the soil by watering it with a solution of copper sulfate, heated to 80 ° C (1 tbsp of copper sulfate per 10 liters of water). It is believed that in this way the likelihood of seedling disease is minimized. However, killing harmful microorganisms, vitriol kills and useful, and therefore decide for yourself whether to use it.
But to fertilize the ground before planting seedlings does not hurt. About a month before disembarking, evenly scatter along the bed:
- organic fertilizers - manure (3 kg per 1 m²), wood ash (1 cup per 1 m²);
- mineral fertilizers - superphosphate (1 table spoon for 1 m²), potassium sulfate (1 table spoon for 1 m²).
Then dig and rake, carefully breaking the clods of earth.
When and how to plant seedlings in the ground
Planting seedlings in the ground should be on the day of purchase, but it should be taken into accountweather. If weather forecasters promise a dull day, it is better to plant the plants right in the morning. But when forecasting sunny weather, we advise you to wait until the evening, then overnight your “settlers” will be able to at least partially take root.
The planting of seedlings in different regions takes place at different times. We will give a table reflecting the optimal dates for the middle zone of Russia, as well as the distances between the holes and the rows, which we recommend to adhere.
Planting seedlings in the southern regions of the Russian Federation and in Ukraine is made a couple of weeks earlier.
After learning when to plant seedlings, let's figure out how to plant it. Here is a step-by-step instruction for a novice gardener:
- With the help of hoe mark up the places of the future holes. To keep the rows even, you can use rakes placed on the ground as a reference line.
- Chopper make a hole. Its depth depends on the height of the stem, but keep in mind: the lowest leaves of tomatoes and peppers must remain above the ground, like a cabbage bud, otherwise it will die.
- If the ground is dry, pour some water to the bottom of the hole, lightly sprinkle it with soil (do not be afraid if such a swamp is obtained - for plants it is not scary).
- Holding the seedling with one hand vertically in the hole, the second one, fill the hole with earth, then press down the soil to strengthen the root and stem.
- When the ground is dry, the newly planted plant will need to be watered and then priporoshit this place primer.
At this landing is over. But you will have to make some more efforts for the seedlings to take root:
- Every evening, while the plants are not accepted, they need to be watered. Water pouring gently under the spine. It is possible to determine that the seedlings have got accustomed, by its equally vigorous state both in the evening and in the morning hours - the first time in the afternoon it may look faded. Then move on to watering as the land dries;
- the sun is the enemy of the transplanted plants, so on clear days the first week they need something to cover. There are no special devices - make paper caps or cover in the manner described in the video:
Now you know how to plant seedlings. Have a good harvest!