How to help tree nursery settle down in your garden
Are you still buying seedlings from vendors along the highway? Find out why you need to buy them only in the plant nursery. We will also reveal the secrets of transportation, planting, pruning a young tree and many other tricks, because planting a tree is a delicate matter. You will learn how to choose the right neighbors for your plants, to protect them from frost, heat, rodents.
Why seedlings need to buy in the nursery
In the fall and spring along the tracks, a wide variety of tree saplings are sold, and sellers assure you that they are from the nursery, call varieties and show beautiful pictures - what these trees supposedly become when they start to bear fruit.
Do not fall for this bait, so as not to be deceived! Most likely seedlings have nothing to do with photos and even with the names of varieties. Do not be lazy and take a trip to the plant nursery: you only need to buy seedlings in them or in specialized garden centers.
Only there they guarantee that this tree is of exactly the sort that you need, and precisely at the age at which it can be repotted. It is believed that the most suitable age for planting a fruit tree is one to two years. Here you will receive a certificate of varietal identification, as well as a certificate confirming the landing qualities. In addition, the "road" sellers can say that this is a local sapling, but in fact it is grown in other climatic conditions, and the winter for him will be a severe test, maybe even unbearable.
Also in the plant nursery, you can choose a sapling to your taste - even with a closed, even with an open root system. If you want to get a harvest as soon as possible, you can buy even a five-year-old seedling in the soil in the nursery.
How to store seedlings during transportation
You have purchased a seedling in a plant nursery, but you need to properly protect it from drying out. To do this, put the roots in a plastic bag. If you plant a tree not immediately, put there two handfuls of wet sawdust, you can peat or moss. Wrap the sapling itself in polyethylene, then it will be able to stand on the balcony for at least a week - only, of course, so that the sun does not shine on it.
Well, if you need to store a sapling, say, a month, then temporarily dig it. To do this, choose a place protected from the wind, place a 20-30 cm sapling in the ground and water well. But do not forget it there: before the start of sap flow, i.e. the movement of nutrients through the tissues of the tree, it must be planted in a permanent place in the garden. Sap flow usually begins in early spring, it is not by chance that they say: the tree is crying.
When to plant trees
A couple of decades ago, it was believed that planting trees is allowed at any time, so long as they are at rest - this is the period after the leaves fall and before bud break. And it was generally accepted to plant trees only with bare roots. Now the approach has changed. In nurseries of plants, trees are grown in special containers and with a closed root, so that they can be replanted at any time, all year round. For a tree, the process of adaptation is painless, the main thing is not to damage the earthen clod that was formed in the container.
Well, trees that have a bare root are still recommended to be planted during the rest period. If for some reason you do not fall within these deadlines, then additional measures are needed to help the plant settle down. What are these measures?
- In early autumn it is necessary to tear off the leaves that are not fallen.
- In late spring, the seedling is cut more.
- Both in the first and in the second case a drug is used that helps the formation of the root system. Experts recommend heteroauxin - a natural substance that is formed in the plants themselves and has a good effect on the growth process. The analogue of this drug is root. These funds can be purchased at any garden store, including online stores.
Stages of planting fruit trees
1. For fruit trees make round pits, but their depth may be different. It depends on the type of tree itself, as well as the type of soil and groundwater. We give examples. For apples and pears in loamy soil, where the groundwater is deep, about 2 m, a hole is dug 60 cm deep and 1 m in diameter. 40 cm deep enough for semi-dwarf trees, while the diameter remains the same. Dwarf trees are planted at a depth of 40 cm and reduce the diameter by 10 cm.
If you plant plum, cherry, black chokeberry, then dig a hole at a depth of 40 cm and a diameter of 80 cm.
On clay soil, the pit should be wider and smaller so that the water does not stand and the roots do not begin to rot.If the soil in your garden plot is dense and heavy, then first loosen the bottom and walls of the pit with pitchforks so that the roots have room to grow.
2. Seedlings with a bare root root neck should not be too deep, otherwise the trees will suffer from frost, as well as heat, leaves may appear on the leaves.
You ask the question: how to find this very root neck? Wipe the tree trunk with a damp cloth where the main roots begin. You will see that in one place the bark has changed color, has become light brown. So this place is the border of the neck.
When planting a tree, see that the root neck is about 5-6 cm higher than the soil level. And when the earth settles, the level will be equal. Sometime in a week, fruit trees are watering with a growth stimulator. You can use a solution of emistim C or charcor. Take 2 ml of the drug per 20 liters of water with the expectation of one tree. The same solution can further spray the trees.
3. Plants with a closed root system, which are grown in a plant nursery in containers, are simply rolled over with a clod of earth. Their roots are not injured, and such trees will grow faster.
It is necessary to replant a tree from a container to the very depth that was in the container. After planting, the soil around it is compacted, from above we make rollers from the ground up to 15 cm high and water it plentifully, for each tree we will need 2-3 buckets of water. Then add compost, peat or old foliage to the well. What is it for? So that the moisture does not evaporate quickly and a crust does not form on the surface.
4. In some cases, drainage is needed - if the soil is heavy and the groundwater flows at a depth of less than 1.5 meters. How to install drainage? Digging a hole, discard the top layer of earth to the side, remove the bottom. Put in the pit substrate, which is prepared from the top layer of soil, turf and leaf soil, humus, sand and peat.
At the bottom of the pit we add mineral and organic fertilizers, but do not abuse them, otherwise the roots will not be able to deliver moisture to the tree in the right amount. Do not forget that the roots should not touch fertilizer. Put a stake in a hole, tie a seedling to it from the north-east or north side of this stake so that the tree does not overheat afterwards.
one.If in the plant nursery you purchased an annual sapling with a bare root, it should be cut. This will help, firstly, to establish a balance between the root and aboveground parts, and secondly, to form a tree.
At what height do the cut? It depends on its future form. If the tree has a sparse-tiered crown, cut a quarter of the shoot, if the bowl-shaped - half. Plants that are poorly resistant to frost, pruned in two sets: 20 cm in the fall and the same in the spring.
2. A young tree can not do without support. An ordinary stick or a wire trellis is suitable for this. Saplings on seed stocks (with a strong and deep root system) need support only for the first year, and on vegetative stocks, with a shallow root system, they need a lifetime.
The garter itself should be soft - it can be a rubber tube, a polyethylene cord, etc. The main thing is that with the growth of the tree, it doesn’t appear to be tied.
3. Planted seedling is still quite fragile, so he needs your protection. It is desirable that he was protected from the wind by a fence or buildings. If they are not, before the onset of cold weather, treat the wood with Bordeaux mixture.In the deep fall the shtamb is insulated with any material that passes moisture and air well (plastic nets, soft cardboard, needles, etc.).
4. You also need to protect the seedling from possible sunburn. To do this, apply any whitewash on the stem (this is the part of the trunk that is between the root neck and the first skeletal branch) and the very bases of such branches.
5. And still need to kill the mice. To do this, put troughs with poisoned bait on the site. If this is not done, the mice may lean on a sapling.
6. In the future, fruit trees need to be sprayed, and this is also a whole science.
7. Pruning is done in early spring or late autumn. It is believed that each tree requires an individual approach.
It is in the human community that the neighbors are not chosen, but in plants everything is different. Almost all fruit trees love light, which means that it is necessary that each of them be comfortable. To do this, we estimate how tall and sprawling these trees will be so that they do not shade each other.
Since the pear and apricot are vigorous, plant them at a distance of at least 3 m. You can plant trees in rows, along a rectangle. Then the distance between the rows should be 2–3 m, between rows 5–5 m.
Lower trees (plums, apples, peaches) brought from plant nursery can be planted more closely, at a distance of up to 2 m.
So, plant nurseries guarantee you the quality of a seedling, and the correct planting depends on you, and this is a very delicate matter! And about the care of rose bushes, seedlings of which you purchased in the nursery, read in this article.