16 ways to develop fine motor skills in a child
All moms know that children need to develop fine motor skills. But not everyone knows how to do it correctly, and indeed in general: what is fine motor skills and what features does it have? What activities, games and exercises should be adopted for the development of motor skills? Consider in detail these issues.
Fine motor skills are the ability to perform small and precise movements with the hands and fingers as a result of coordinated actions of the most important systems: nervous, muscular, and bone.
With respect to the motility of the hands and fingers, the term is often used.agility. The field of fine motor skills includes a large number of various movements: from simple gestures (for example, capturing a toy) to very complex movements (for example, writing and drawing).
The development of fine motor skills plays an important role in the overall development of the child. Fine motor skills develop already with the newborn. First, the baby examines his hands, then learns to manage them.At first, he takes objects with his whole palm, then with only two (thumb and thumb) fingers. Then the child is taught to properly hold a spoon, pencil, brush.
Fine motor skills have a very important feature. It is associated with the nervous system, vision, attention, memory and perception of the child. Also, scientists have proven that the development of fine motor skills and the development of speech are very closely related. And this is simply explained.
In the brain speech and motor centers are located close enough to each other. Therefore, when stimulating the motor skills of the fingers, the speech center begins to be activated.
That is why for the timely development of the child’s speech, great attention must be paid to the development of fine motor skills. Fine motor skills directly affect manual dexterity, handwriting, which will be formed later, on the child’s reaction speed.
According to the peculiarities of the development of fine motor skills, the child is later judged on his readiness for school. If everything is in order, then the child is prepared for learning to write, knows how to think and reason logically, has a good memory, concentration, attention and imagination, coherent speech.
Fine motor skills develop gradually, this is an individual process and for each child it passes at its own pace. At first the movements of the kid are awkward, inept and disharmonious. To help your child improve fine motor skills, you need to play developmental games with him (there are articles about developmental games for children at the age of 1 year in the Internet magazine Razvitie, as well as games for the development of children at the age of 2).
Classes, games and exercises for the development of fine motor skills
There are many activities, games and exercises for the development of fine motor skills. They can be divided into the following groups: finger games, games with small objects, modeling and drawing, finger massage. An article about child development in the Montessori system, as well as on Montessori games will also be interesting.
The most simple and effective games
1. Palm massage
This is the easiest and most versatile for any age method of developing fine motor skills. With your finger, slide your hands around the baby, stroke and massage them. Accompany your actions with the rhyme "Forty Raven".
Since childhood, everyone knows the “Ladushka-Ladushki” podeshka. This game will teach the youngest to straighten fingers and clap their hands.
3. Tearing paper
Exercise is suitable for children from 7 months.Give your baby a few sheets of soft colored paper. He with pleasure feels it, will start to twirl in hands and to tear. This occupation will give him untold pleasure.
4. Turning pages
After a year, tearing the paper can be replaced by turning the pages of some picture book or magazine.
Children like to sort out small objects, which is very useful. Therefore, you can wear some beads with beads of various sizes and shapes. The child will be happy and interested to touch their fingers.
From them you can build turrets, put them into each other. This game forms the concept of the size of objects in a child.
Put any cereal in a bowl and give it to your baby. He will touch the rump with his hand or wake it through his fingers. This game develops fine motor skills and tactile sensations.
8. Jars of cereals
Put different cereals in jars and let the child take turns to lower each hand into each jar. So he will be able to probe different grains and take them with his fingers. You can complicate the task. Before the child’s eyes, bury some small object in the cereal and give him a jar. Let him try to find this item.
Read also the article "How to help your child stop lying."
9. Drawing in the sand
Put sand on the tray. Take the baby's finger in your hand and run it on the sand. You can start with simple shapes - lines, rectangle, circle, gradually complicating the task.
Toys for the development of fine motor skills
You will need a pea and a jar with a removable lid. Show the child that you first need to remove the lid, then take a pea with your fingers and put it in a jar, then close the lid. Ask your child to do the same. Do not be discouraged if the first time does not work.
Show your child the whole chain of actions slowly, several times, and then he will be able to repeat everything. For active children, this game quickly bothers, in this case you do not need to force them. Offer the child a different game.
11. Screwing the caps
Such a simple exercise, as screwing and unwinding the lids of cans, bottles, bubbles, develops dexterity of fingers. Offer your kid vessels of different sizes and shapes, it will make the game more diverse.
12. Fastening, unzipping and lacing.
This exercise will not require any additional toys. Gradually involve the child in the dressing process.Let him fasten and undo his buttons and zippers.
This will not only develop hand movements, but also teach the child to independence. Give the child some unnecessary shoe with lacing, which will be an excellent trainer for hands.
Sculpting is suitable for children of different ages. For modeling, you can take clay, clay, dough. When you are going to bake something, be sure to take the child with you. He really likes to knead and roll out the dough. In addition, he will be proud to help his mother.
Exercises for the development of fine motor skills
14. Drawing and coloring
It is very useful to trace the outline of the pictures, consisting of dotted lines, as well as to color objects of various shapes. It is good to draw on vertical surfaces: wall, board, mirror. Therefore, it is advisable to hang a special board for the kid to draw.
15. Collecting mosaics and puzzles
For children under 3 years old, jigsaw puzzles and large pieces are chosen. Puzzles also train the imagination.
Buy baby scissors, glue stick, colored paper and cardboard. Teach him tinkering. Cut pictures, stick them, make snowflakes, etc.This will develop not only fine motor skills, but also spatial imagination and creative thinking.
However, it is worth remembering one simple thing. Games for the development of fine motor skills should be conducted under the supervision of adults, otherwise the child can swallow some fine detail or choke on it.
It is necessary to systematically play games and perform exercises that develop fine motor skills. Work with your child every day, and soon you will notice that the movements of your baby become more and more smooth, precise and coordinated each time.