140 years ago. The anniversary of one half-forgotten attempt
Such educational filmstrips twisted in history lessons to Soviet schoolchildren. It is curious that the Soviet artist depicted Trepov with a beard, although the general did not wear a beard, but only a mustache with busters and whiskers, like the reigning Emperor Alexander II
On February 5 (January 24, old style) of 1878, one historical event happened in Russia, which left a big mark on the memory of contemporaries. Now it is, alas, almost completely forgotten. For example, in the "events of the day" on February 5 in Russian Wikipedia, it is not mentioned at all, although such an important historical event as mentioned is: "Colonel Richard Ratsimandrava took office as President of Madagascar. Killed during the attempt after incomplete seven days of government." Of course, the regrettable fate of Colonel Ratsimandrava for the Russian reader is much more important than what happened in Russia itself on February 5, 1878! However, taking into account the fact that the revolutionary history is now thoroughly washed out everywhere and in allthe former USSR, and not only in post-Ukraine, and not only in Vika, this fact is not at all surprising. In Ukraine, the name of V.I. Zasulich was officially listed as persons subject to de-communization, even though she did not accept October 1917 ... But even in Yekaterinburg, Zasulich Street was renamed Odinaruku back in 1998.
Vera Zasulich and General Fyodor Trepov (senior)
Bogolyubov was whipped, and he himself made no sound during the execution, and the whole prison was seething with indignation. (Bogolyubov later fell ill with mental illness and died a few years later).
The next day, the illegality of his order was explained to Trepov by the vice-director of the department of the Ministry of Justice Anatoly Koni. He confusedly replied: “Have mercy when the Minister of Justice not only advises, but almost asks, can I doubt? I am a soldier, I am an unlearned man, I do not understand the legal subtleties! Eh, why were you not there yesterday ?! ”.
The supreme power kept silent, and Trepova did not state any condemnation of the act. And the revolutionaries began to prepare in their own way for revenge.“Trepov’s wild deed with Bogolyubov was the last straw that filled the cup of bitterness, both in my soul and in the souls of my comrades,” wrote the famous narodovolets Nikolay Morozov. He was preparing to shoot Trepov, the same plans had other terrorists.
And on February 5, Nemesis herself appeared in the office to Trepov in the person of a 28-year-old young lady who called herself Elizaveta Kozlova. The petitioner said she was looking for a governess’s place, and for that she would like to get a certificate of her specious behavior. Trepov didn’t have time to put the resolution “I permit” on the petition, as a young girl pulled out a 6-battery English "bulldog" and fired a shot at the town governor ...
Georgy Konstantinovich Savitsky (1887-1949). Vera Zasulich
English bulldog". Of these weapons, Zasulich shot at Trepova.
A narodovolets, and later a monarchist Lev Tikhomirov recalled Vera Zasulich: "She was in appearance a thoroughbred nihilist, dirty, unkempt, walked forever ragged, in torn shoes, or even barefoot. But her soul was golden, clean and bright, sincere rarity. "
The wound of the general (which many did not believe at all) was not at all comic, and the bullet remained in his body until the end of his life.The gendarme general V. Novitsky recalled: “Rumors circulated in society that Zasulich Trepov’s bullet was not even injured, and the bullet passed through Trepov’s body, whose statement about the bullet’s injury was false. These circulating rumors were absolutely false, spread by revolutionaries. indeed, he was wounded by a bullet in the left side of the chest, and the bullet occasionally went all the way down towards the bladder, through which Trepov, especially in recent years, felt severe pains, of which he only got rid of a few the advice of the famous Italian surgeon wore made by the same surgeon garter, what kept the bullet from drooping, weakened bullet pressure on the nerve centers, and why he suffered incredibly excruciating pain, what me and passed. " However, all this did not prevent Trepov from living to 80 years ...
So I saw the attempted foreign seal
And then the trial of Vera Zasulich took place. In view of the obviousness of the guilt of the arrested government, they decided to transfer the case to the jury, which they usually did not do ... and missed it very much. The head of the court was the same Anatoly Koni (who had previously reprimanded Trepov for his rash decision).
The defendant's lawyer, Peter Alexandrov, approached the case seriously, delving into all the details. Before the opening of the court, he came to Zasulich in prison with a cardboard box in his hands and said: “Sorry, Vera Ivanovna, I brought you a mantillo”. Seeing her bewilderment, he explained: a worn cloak will add public sympathy. And he remarked: "Our people are full of prejudices. For example, it is considered that someone who bites his nails is an evil person, and you have this habit. Please refrain from judgment, do not bite nails." Vera herself was sure that the court would sentence her to the gallows. Therefore, wear a cloak was not. A lawyer’s reproachful question followed: “Vera Ivanovna, where is the mantilla?” “I felt so sorry for him,” she recalled, “that, wanting to console him, I exclaimed:“ But I won't bite my nails! ”
When asked if she recognized herself guilty, Zasulich replied: "I admit that I shot General Trepov, and whether I could have been hurt or died from this — it was all the same to me."
And after that, on March 31 (April 12), 1878, the jury pronounced ... acquittal. Here a lot coincided: the position of the head of the Kony court (he did not want to justify the defendant, of course, but he hinted to the jury about the possibility of leniency), and the skillful work of a lawyer, and the weak position of the prosecution.
The Minister of Justice, Count Palen, was soon dismissed "for insufficient attention to the process of V. Zasulich." AF Koni paid with his post, but his participation in the Zasulich case helped him very much after October 1917 to find a common language with the new government.
A. Koni described the reaction of the public to the acquittal of Zasulich: “Cries of unrestrained joy, hysterical sobs, desperate applause, feet stamping, exclamations:“ Bravo! Hurray! Well done! Faith! Vera! Verochka! ” , and many were baptized; in the upper, more democratic office for the public, they embraced, even in places the judges clapped hard in the hardest way ... One was especially zealous over my ear, I looked around, Assistant General Feldzheikhmeister count A. A. Barantzov, flushed gray-haired fat man he beat in the palm of his hand. Having met my eyes, he stopped, smiled in embarrassment, but as soon as I turned away, I began to clap again ... ".
I. E. Repin. Portrait of A. F. Koni. 1898
And the monarchist Prince Meshchersky, the editor of the far-right “Citizen,” wrote: “The justification for Zasulich happened as if in some horrible nightmare, no one could understandhow could such a terrible mockery of state servants and such a brazen triumph of sedition take place in the courtroom of the autocratic empire. "
Yes, the sedition triumph took place, albeit as a rare exception. Of course, the authorities would have arrested Zasulich again immediately after the trial, and were about to do it, but she managed to escape abroad. After that, all political affairs were taken away from the jury ... And before the global "celebration of sedition", already on a national scale, there were still almost 40 years ...
Nikolay Yaroshenko. A girl student. 1883. The terrorist. Etude. 1881
In the 1920s, using the example of Vera Zasulich and her comrades, they taught the younger generation, although Vera Ivanovna did not accept the October Revolution, remaining among the “defencists” along with G.